20. Glossar

The glossary has two parts. Everybody encounters the basic terms in Mahara. The advanced terms are for people who want to understand more and are especially for administrators.

Das Glossar gibt Ihnen eine schnelle Erläuterung für einen Begriff. Sofern möglich sind die Begriffe mit der ersten Stelle in diesem Manual verknüpft an der sie auftauchen. Da die Begriffe mehrfach verwendet werden, beachten Sie auch den Index oder nutzen Sie die Volltextsuche.


Your content is generally protected and private and not accessible to others by default. You put your content into pages and collections. Then you decide to publish your pages and collections for others, groups, or the public.

Access means that depending on the access permissions you give for a page or collection, individuals, members of a group, everyone on your Mahara instance or anybody online can read and possibly also comment on your content if that functionality is enabled.

Siehe auch: Freigeben


Sie haben einen persönlichen Zugang zu Mahara via a Login und Passwort. Ihr Nutzeraccount identifiziert Sie persönlich. Ihr Name (und Ihr Profilbild) wird im System angezeigt, z.B. auf Ihrer Profilseite, in Ihren Forenbeiträgen usw. Sie können Ihren Account selber verwalten in den Einstellungen.


Artefakte sind alle Arten von Inhalten, die Sie in Ihrem persönlichen Contentbereich ablegen, z.B. Texte, Blogeinträge, Bilder, Tondateien, Videos oder Grafiken.


Mahara can administer accounts fully internally by creating accounts manually of by CSV file. If account data is stored in external applications, e.g. an LDAP directory, a SimpleSAML identity provider or Moodle, people can use their usual logins and passwords to connect to Mahara. The authentication methods used in an institution are managed in the institution settings byt the site administrator.


Ganz allgemein gesagt: Autoren sind Contentersteller und haben die vollen Verfügungsrechten an ihren Werken in Form von Texten, Tondateien, Videos oder jeder anderen Form. Wenn Sie nicht selber der Autor eines Werkes sind, dieses aber für Ihr Portfolio verwenden wollen, fragen Sie um Erlaubnis. Wenn Sie diese Zustimmung nicht erhalten haben, verwenden Sie es nicht in Ihrem Portfolio oder in einer Gruppe.


Blöcke existieren in Ansichten. Sie enthalten verschiedene Artefakte, die auf einer Seite (Ansicht) angeordnet werden. Ansichten sind Teil Ihres Portfolios.

Geschlossenes Theme

Ein Forenthema kann für Mitglieder geschlossen werden durch den Gruppenadministartor oder Forenmoderatoren. Die Gruppenmitglieder können dann den Inhalt lesen aber nicht antworten.


A collection is a bundle of pages that contain your artefacts. A navigation block or the navigation bar helps to move from page to page in a collection.


You can ask others and / or friends to comment on your pages and / or collections that you have shared. Comments should be constructive and helpful. They should point out things that you did well and others that you may need to improve by providing constructive suggestions and encouragement for further learning.

The comments area is at the bottom of each page, but can also be turned off by the author of the page or artefact.

Kontrollierte Gruppe

Controlled groups are similar to courses in learning management systems. The administrator can place people into the group who then cannot leave it. Usually, the administrator allows the submission of pages and collections to this group for assessment purposes.


Course groups allow the administrator to assign certain members the tutor role. Tutors can then give feedback on submitted pages and collections if these are allowed, but cannot add or remove people from the group.


Das Vorwort ist die erste Seite einer Bewerbung. Man bezeichnet sie häufig auch als Anschreiben. Daran schließt sich zumeist der Lebenslauf an. Das Vorwort kann die erste Seite einer Sammlung eines Bewerbungs- oder Praktikumsportfolios sein.


CSV means ‚comma separated values‘ and describes the structure of a text file in which table columns are separated by a comma (or sometimes also semi-colon). You can create a CSV file with your data in a spreadsheet software such as Libre Office Calc or MS Excel. You can use CSV files in Mahara to create and edit accounts and groups as well as manage group members.


The dashboard is your start and overview page after you logged in. You can customise the information you see on your dashboard and for example have access to portfolios shared with you, your notifications, forum topics you are following etc.

Angezeigter Name

Wenn Sie in Mahara nicht Ihren Vor- und Nachnamen anzeigen wollen, können Sie einen angezeigten Namen anlegen, z.B. einen Nickname, sofern der Site- oder Institutionsadministrator dies zugelassen hat. Bei sehr großen Institutionen kann es vorkommen, dass zwei Nutzer den gleichen Vor- und Nachnamen haben. Der angezeigte Name kann dann eine Unterscheidung möglich machen.

Editability of a group

Group administrators can decide if group members should only be able to add content to a group during a certain time frame. This can be useful when a group is course-related and shouldn’t allow the adding of files or conversations after the end of a course. Group administrators and tutors can always add, edit and delete content at all times.

Embedded Code

You can make content from other websites such as videos, audio, animations and presentations visible in Mahara by linking to it. If the external content can be embedded via an iframe or code that starts with <object> or <embed>, it can usually be displayed in Text or Note block or journal entry. Iframes can also be displayed in the External media block on a page. The site administrator may need to add specific iframes that you wish to embed to the allowed iframe sources.

Exakte Suche

Exact search reduces the number of search results you get for people. Only results that are identical to the search terms will be found. For example, if you search for “james smith” without exact search turned on, your results page lists everyone starting with “james” no matter whether the last name is “smith” or not. If you turn on exact search, only people whose first and last name is “james smith” will be found. There is no need to use quotation marks when searching. Quotation marks are only necessary if you want to search for a display name that consists of two names. You must be a site administrator to turn exact search on or off.


See ‚Comments‘


You can use files in different locations: in your personal portfolio, groups, institutions and on the site level if you have access to the latter ones. The site administrator defines the size of the files area. Organise your files area carefully by placing your files into folders and by adding metadata such as descriptions and tags to your files and folders. That makes it much easier to distinguish a file after months from dozens or hundreds of others.


Sie können die Suchergebnisse eingrenzen und nur in Schlagworten nach dem Suchbegriff für freigegebene Ansichten suchen. Sie können die Suche auch auf Seiten eingrenzen, die für Sie und andere freigegeben wurden.


Schriftliche zeitversetzte Diskussionen in Gruppen werden in Teilthemen aufgeteilt, um sie besser zu organisieren und als Forum zu gestalten.


Forum moderators can edit forum posts and add posts in closed topics. They can edit forum topics or create new ones in the forum for which they are moderators.


Friends are your contacts on the site. You can ask other registered people to become your friends. If they agree, you can then invite them into groups or share pages or collections with them. However, you do not have to become someone’s friend to view their portfolio pages or collections. A portfolio author can always share pages or collections with you without making you a friend.


You can use the submission functionality in groups to lock portfolio pages or collections when giving feedback. Mahara itself does not have a gradebook, but you could still record any grading results in the comment section at the bottom of each page and make it visible only to the author. Some institutions use the rating functionality in the comments section for grading purposes.

For more formal assessments, you can link Mahara to a learning management system. In Moodle for example, you can use the Mahara assignment submission plugin to assess portfolios directly in Moodle using standard Moodle grading options such as outcomes or rubrics.


You can create groups and invite others into your groups to work collaboratively on projects. Groups can use forums for discussions, a group files area for sharing files, journals to reflect collectively and create and share pages and collections. The site administrator can disable the possibility to create groups for regular account holders.


Gruppenadministratoren definieren Gruppeneinstellungen, legen neue Foren an und verwalten die Gruppenmitgliedschaft.


The group homepage is the starting point for activities in a group. You can show the group description, a list of group members, latest forum posts or any number of other blocks.


Your inbox is the place where you can access the notifications and messages you received from others or the system. You can decide whether you want to read your messages in your inbox or receive them via email.


You can invite any others to your groups if you are the group administrator, or you may be able to invite your friends into groups in which you are a member. The invited people can accept the invitation or reject it.


A Mahara site can consist of any number of independent institutions in which people and certain institution settings are administered. This allows the use of one Mahara instance for many organisations without the need to install Mahara for each.


Institution administrators can manage institution settings and account holders. They do not have access to other institutions or settings on the site level.


Institutionsadministratoren können Institutionsansichten anlegen, die als Beispiel oder Vorlage für Institutionsmitglieder dienen. Sie können automatisch in die Nutzeraccounts neu angelegter Nutzer kopiert werden.


ie können Ihre persönlichen Reflexionen zu einem Thema oder Ihrem Lernfortschritt in einem Blog sammeln. Er besteht aus einzelnen Beiträgen, die Sie selber schreiben. In der Grundeinstellung können Sie einen solchen Blog führen. Sie können mehrere Blogs in Ihren persönlichen Einstellungen aktivieren. Blogs können Sie als Ganzes, als einzelne Einträge oder über Schlagworte in Ihren Ansichten öffentlich machen. Damit legen Sie fest, was anderen Nutzern zugänglich gemacht wird.

Sie legen selber fest, ob ein Blogeintrag von anderen in einer Ansicht gesehen wird, oder als Entwurf nur Ihnen persönlich zugänglich bleibt.


Leap2A is a portfolio standard that is used by a number of ePortfolio systems for data exchange. In Mahara, authors can export their entire portfolio or parts of it as Leap2A file and then have it imported into another Mahara instance or an ePortfolio system that supports Leap2A to continue straight away without having to re-create their portfolio. Since every portfolio system functions differently, a complete one-to-one transfer of information is not possible and in most cases some work is required after the transfer.


When you upload content to Mahara, you may need to agree to the upload agreement or specify a license for the content you upload so others know whether it is your own or was created by somebody else. You can use the Creative Commons block if you want to share an entire portfolio page under a Creative Commons license.


Mahoodle ist der Begriff, der für die Verbindung von Mahara und Moodle für ein Single Sign-on und und zum Contentaustausch verwandt wird.


People in an institution are institution members and people in groups are group members.


Messages are sent to you by others. The messages appear in your inbox and can be delivered via email as well.


Moodle is a learning management system (LMS) and thus teacher-centred. Courses in Moodle are filled with learning content by teachers. Students get access to the content and can discuss it and are often graded on their performance. Moodle and Mahara can be used in combination. If connected, people only need one account for both systems and can switch between them without a new login. Mahara can be used as personal repository for people, and they can copy their own assignments and course contributions into their Mahara account as artefacts.


Notifications are automatically created by the system and inform you about new feedback on your pages, new forum posts in groups, new access to others’ pages, and much more. The notifications appear in your inbox and can be delivered via email.

Unangemessenes Material

On any page to which you have access, you might come across content that is inappropriate, offensive or violates the terms of usage of the site. You can click the Report objectionable material link on the page or the artefact details page and give your reason why you marked this content as objectionable. Administrators are notified, can review the content and could block the offender from accessing the system until the content is removed. It cannot be defined in general terms what is considered inappropriate. The owner of the site has to define this based on the purpose of the site and the age of its account holders for example.

Forum posts can also be reported as objectionable by clicking the Report button.

Show who’s online

This sidebar shows other people that have been online during the last 10 minutes. Institution administrators can limit this list to show only members from their own institution.

Offene Gruppe

Offene Gruppen können von jederman besucht werden, ohne dass eine Bestätigung durch einen Gruppenadministrator erforderlich ist.


Der Eigentümer ist die Person oder Gruppe, die eine Ansicht oder Sammlung erstellt hat oder der ein Artefakt gehört.


You can design pages by arranging artefacts on them. You define the page layout and - if enabled - the theme for it. You give others access to pages so they can view your work and comment on it. Several pages can be added to a collection. Everybody can create personal pages, and group members may be able to create group pages.

Ansichten können auch als Vorlage für die weitere Nutzung durch andere Nutzer erstellt werden.


The page layout is responsive and adapts to the size of the screen. You can place blocks onto a page and change their size.


Plans are ToDo lists consisting of tasks. You can add your plans as blocks into your pages.


Portfolios gather stuff, i.e. learning artefacts and evidence. In Mahara you place your artefacts into pages which you can bundle up into collections. A page or a collection can then already be your portfolio. Thus, you can create many different portfolios. You decide whether you want to share your portfolios with others or keep them for yourself. You can create portfolios for many purposes, e.g.

  • reflecting on courses;

  • creating and reflecting on projects;

  • personal reflecting on individual development or separate learning processes;

  • creating résumés and your learner biography;

  • Beispiele für Ihre besten Arbeitsergebnisse zusammenstellen und vieles mehr.


Informationen über die Verwendung privater Daten auf der Mahara-Instanz. Meistens steht ein Link in der Fußzeile hierzu zur Verfügung.


Your profile page is visible to others on Mahara. You should only display as much information about yourself as you are comfortable for others to see. Your display name or if you do not have one, your first name and last name, is displayed along with your profile picture. People may also be able to contact you and invite you to groups. All other elements on your profile page are optional.

Öffentliche Gruppe

Öffentliche Gruppen sind für jedermann im Internet sichtbar. Sie können auch ohne Mitglied zu sein den Forendiskussionen dieses Gruppentyps folgen und ihre Ansichten einsehen. Um sich an den Diskussionen zu beteiligen oder die Gruppenansichten zu bearbeiten, müssen Sie jedoch Gruppenmitglied werden.


Sie können Ihren Kontakten eine Gruppe empfehlen wenn der Administrator dies vorgesehen hat. Der Gruppenadministrator wird dann die Gruppenmitgliedschaft jeweils bestätigen.


Die Biografie enthält Details zu Ihrer Ausbildung, den Beschäftigungsverhältnissen, Ihren Erfolgen, Fähigkeiten und Interessen in einer tabellarischen Darstellung. Sie können es für eine Bewerbung für ein Praktikum oder eine Arbeitsstelle verwenden. Die einzelnen Teile der Biografie sind wiederverwendbar. Nutzen Sie einzelne Teile in anderen Portfolios.

RSS Feed

RSS feeds aggregate news from portal pages, forums or blogs. You can add RSS feeds from external sites to your pages using the ‚External feed‘ block. The content will be updated continuously. Mahara can also create RSS feeds for forums in public groups and journals that appear in public pages.


You can search for pages by title, description or tags on ‚Shared with me‘ and will see a list of results immediately. You can also search for people by using the people search box. If the site administrator turned on exact search, you need to provide the complete name of a person in order to find them. Otherwise, a part of their name is enough but often yields too many results. Full-text search is not available if the site administrator installed Elasticsearch on the server.

Geheime URL

You can create secret URLs for pages and collections to give people who do not have a login to the site access to your pages or collections. The difference to making pages or collections public is that search engines cannot find these pages (unless a link to them appears on a web page).


You can share your pages and collections with others by giving them access to them. The people with whom you have shared your pages and collections may comment on them. You can also share pages with people who do not have an account on the system by sharing your pages and collections with them via a secret URL.

Single Sign-on

Single sign-on (SSO) beschreibt einen Prozess, sich in eine Anwendung einzuloggen und dann zu einer weiteren Anwendung zu wechseln und sich dort nicht erneut einloggen zu müssen. Moodle und Mahara werden oft über SSO miteinander verbunden. Die Verbindung erfolgt über MNet. Eine weitere SSO Authentifizierungsmethode in Mahara ist SAML. Weitere Verfahren sind über Plugins möglich.


Site meint die gesamte Seite und die Administration auf globaler Ebene für die gesamte Mahara-Instanz.


Site administrators can define system (site) settings for an entire Mahara instance. They can add, edit, and delete accounts and have access to all content even in private areas as they can log in as anybody, e.g. to assist with troubleshooting issues.


Files area on system (site) level that the site administrator can work with. Files that are placed in the public folder in the site files are available to everyone.


Pages created on site level that can be put into new accounts automatically as templates.


A skin is a way of customising the look of a portfolio page on top of a theme. The use of skins must be allowed by the site and institution administrator. If they are allowed, people can create them themselves and change the background, fonts and font colour for certain elements on their page. Skins can also be shared with others on the site or exported and imported.


Staff on the site or institution level have a few additional permissions compared to regular account holders. For example, they can create controlled groups and hide groups, and they can also view statistics if the site administrator allowed that. Institution staff are also listed alongside institution administrators on their institution’s contact page.

Festgeklebtes Thema

Themen in einem Forum werden nach dem Datum der Posts sortiert. Das Thema in dem zuletzt ein Beitrag erfolgte, wird oben angezeigt. Manchmal sollen bestimmte Einträge höhere Aufmerksamkeit erhalten. Sie können dann ‚festgeklebt‘ werden und bleiben in der Liste oben stehen. Gruppenadministratoren und Forenmoderatoren können diese Einstellung vornehmen und wieder rückgängig machen.


Tags are keywords that facilitate searching for your artefacts, pages and collections when the title and description are not enough. You can view all your tagged content in a tag cloud in the sidebar and click a tag to see all associated artefacts and portfolios.

Tag Cloud

You can display your most often used tags in the sidebar in a so called tag cloud. The tags are shown in different sizes: A tag that is used more often is bigger than a tag that is used seldom.


Aufgaben werden als Teil von Plänen angelegt und enthalten weitere Details. Sie können auch als To-Do-Liste genutzt werden. Eine Aufgabe enthält einen Titel, eine Beschreibung und einen Erledigungstermin


Pages and collections can be offered as templates to others. They can be copied, or institution and site administrators can have them added automatically into the portfolio area of new account holders. Templates are used to jumpstart the collection of content and the creation of portfolios.


The terms and conditions define the appropriate use of the site. The site administrator can display a link to this page in the footer of every page and also ask people to confirm them during registration.


The graphical interface design is called theme. If you have institutions on your site, they can have their own theme. Authors can also use individual themes for their portfolio pages if the site administrator allows that.


Diskussionsforen enthalten Themen, die verschiedene Teilthemen des Forums voneinander abgrenzen.


Tutoren gibt es nur in Kursgruppen. Sie können für eingereichte Ansichten und Sammlungen Feedback geben. Nachdem Sie dies getan haben, können Sie die Ansichten und Sammlungen wieder freigeben. Die Autoren haben dann wieder vollen Zugriff und können sie weiter bearbeiten.


The wall is a block on your profile page. Others can leave a message on your wall.


Sie können Ansichten und Sammlungen, die für Sie freigegeben wurden, zu Ihrer Beobachtungsliste hinzufügen. Sie erhalten dann Benachrichtigungen wenn diese aktualisiert werden.